prep_data will prepare your data for machine learning. Some steps enhance predictive power, some make sure that the data format is compatible with a wide array of machine learning algorithms, and others provide protection against common problems in model deployment. The following steps are available; those followed by * are applied by default. Many have customization options.

  1. Convert columns with only 0/1 to factor*

  2. Remove columns with near-zero variance*

  3. Convert date columns to useful features*

  4. Fill in missing values via imputation*

  5. Collapse rare categories into "other"*

  6. Center numeric columns

  7. Standardize numeric columns

  8. Create dummy variables from categorical variables*

  9. Add protective levels to factors for rare and missing data*

While preparing your data, a recipe will be generated for identical transformation of future data and stored in the `recipe` attribute of the output data frame. If a recipe object is passed to `prep_data` via the `recipe` argument, that recipe will be applied to the data. This allows you to transform data in model training and apply exactly the same transformations in model testing and deployment. The new data must be identical in structure to the data that the recipe was prepared with.

prep_data(d, ..., outcome, recipe = NULL, remove_near_zero_variance = TRUE,
  convert_dates = TRUE, impute = TRUE, collapse_rare_factors = TRUE,
  center = FALSE, scale = FALSE, make_dummies = TRUE, add_levels = TRUE,
  factor_outcome = TRUE)

Arguments

d

A data frame

...

Optional. Columns to be ignored in preparation and model training, e.g. ID columns. Unquoted; any number of columns can be included here.

outcome

Optional. Unquoted column name that indicates the target variable. If provided, argument must be named. If this target is 0/1, it will be coerced to Y/N if factor_outcome is TRUE; other manipulation steps will not be applied to the outcome.

recipe

Optional. Recipe for how to prep d. In model deployment, pass the output from this function in training to this argument in deployment to prepare the deployment data identically to how the training data was prepared. If training data is big, pull the recipe from the "recipe" attribute of the prepped training data frame and pass that to this argument. If present, all following arguments will be ignored.

remove_near_zero_variance

Logical or numeric. If TRUE (default), columns with near-zero variance will be removed. These columns are either a single value, or the most common value is much more frequent than the second most common value. Example: In a column with 120 "Male" and 2 "Female", the frequency ratio is 0.0167. It would be excluded by default or if `remove_near_zero_variance` > 0.0166. Larger values will remove more columns and this value must lie between 0 and 1.

convert_dates

Logical or character. If TRUE (default), date columns are identifed and used to generate day-of-week, month, and year columns, and the original date columns are removed. If FALSE, date columns are removed. If a character vector, it is passed to the `features` argument of `recipes::step_date`. E.g. if you want only quarter and year back: `convert_dates = c("quarter", "year")`.

impute

Logical or list. If TRUE (default), columns will be imputed using mean (numeric), and new category (nominal). If FALSE, data will not be imputed. If this is a list, it must be named, with possible entries for `numeric_method`, `nominal_method`, `numeric_params`, `nominal_params`, which are passed to hcai_impute.

collapse_rare_factors

Logical or numeric. If TRUE (default), factor levels representing less than 3 percent of observations will be collapsed into a new category, `other`. If numeric, must be in 0, 1, and is the proportion of observations below which levels will be grouped into other. See `recipes::step_other`.

center

Logical. If TRUE, numeric columns will be centered to have a mean of 0. Default is FALSE.

scale

Logical. If TRUE, numeric columns will be scaled to have a standard deviation of 1. Default is FALSE.

make_dummies

Logical. If TRUE (default), dummy columns will be created for categorical variables.

add_levels

Logical. If TRUE (defaults), "other" and "missing" will be added to all nominal columns. This is protective in deployment: new levels found in deployment will become "other" and missingness in deployment can become "missing" if the nominal imputation method is "new_category". If FALSE, these "other" will be added to all nominal variables if collapse_rare_factors is used, and "missingness" may be added depending on details of imputation.

factor_outcome

Logical. If TRUE (default) and if all entries in outcome are 0 or 1 they will be converted to factor with levels N and Y for classification. Note that which level is the positive class is set in training functions rather than here.

Value

Prepared data frame with reusable recipe object for future data preparation in attribute "recipe". Attribute recipe contains the names of ignored columns (those passed to ...) in attribute "ignored_columns".

See also

To let data preparation happen automatically under the hood, see machine_learn

To take finer control of imputation, see impute, and for finer control of data prep in general check out the recipes package: https://topepo.github.io/recipes/

To train models on prepared data, see tune_models and flash_models

Examples

d_train <- pima_diabetes[1:700, ] d_test <- pima_diabetes[701:768, ] # Prep data. Ignore patient_id (identifier) and treat diabetes as outcome d_train_prepped <- prep_data(d = d_train, patient_id, outcome = diabetes)
#> Training new data prep recipe...
# Prep test data by reapplying the same transformations as to training data d_test_prepped <- prep_data(d_test, recipe = d_train_prepped)
#> Prepping data based on provided recipe
# View the transformations applied and the prepped data d_test_prepped
#> healthcareai-prepped data. Recipe used to prepare data:
#> Data Recipe #> #> Inputs: #> #> role #variables #> outcome 1 #> predictor 8 #> #> Training data contained 700 data points and 340 incomplete rows. #> #> Operations: #> #> Sparse, unbalanced variable filter removed no terms [trained] #> Mean Imputation for pregnancies, plasma_glucose, ... [trained] #> Filling NA with missing for weight_class [trained] #> Adding levels to: other, missing [trained] #> Collapsing factor levels for weight_class [trained] #> Adding levels to: other, missing [trained] #> Dummy variables from weight_class [trained]
#> Current data:
#> # A tibble: 68 x 13 #> pregnancies plasma_glucose diastolic_bp skinfold insulin pedigree age #> <int> <int> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <int> #> 1 2 122 76 27 200 0.483 26 #> 2 6 125 78 31 154. 0.565 49 #> 3 1 168 88 29 154. 0.905 52 #> 4 2 129 72.3 29.1 154. 0.304 41 #> 5 4 110 76 20 100 0.118 27 #> 6 6 80 80 36 154. 0.177 28 #> 7 10 115 72.3 29.1 154. 0.261 30 #> 8 2 127 46 21 335 0.176 22 #> 9 9 164 78 29.1 154. 0.148 45 #> 10 2 93 64 32 160 0.674 23 #> # ... with 58 more rows, and 6 more variables: diabetes <fct>, #> # weight_class_normal <dbl>, weight_class_obese <dbl>, #> # weight_class_overweight <dbl>, weight_class_other <dbl>, #> # weight_class_missing <dbl>
# Customize preparations: prep_data(d = d_train, patient_id, outcome = diabetes, impute = list(numeric_method = "bagimpute", nominal_method = "bagimpute"), collapse_rare_factors = FALSE, convert_dates = "year", center = TRUE, scale = TRUE, make_dummies = FALSE, remove_near_zero_variance = .02)
#> Training new data prep recipe...
#> healthcareai-prepped data. Recipe used to prepare data:
#> Data Recipe #> #> Inputs: #> #> role #variables #> outcome 1 #> predictor 8 #> #> Training data contained 700 data points and 340 incomplete rows. #> #> Operations: #> #> Sparse, unbalanced variable filter removed no terms [trained] #> Bagged tree imputation for pregnancies, plasma_glucose, ... [trained] #> Bagged tree imputation for weight_class [trained] #> Centering for pregnancies, plasma_glucose, ... [trained] #> Scaling for pregnancies, plasma_glucose, ... [trained] #> Adding levels to: other, missing [trained] #> Adding levels to: other, missing [trained]
#> Current data:
#> # A tibble: 700 x 10 #> patient_id pregnancies plasma_glucose diastolic_bp skinfold insulin #> <int> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> #> 1 1 0.646 0.872 -0.0205 0.631 0.434 #> 2 2 -0.840 -1.19 -0.513 0.00950 -0.849 #> 3 3 1.24 2.02 -0.678 -0.765 0.605 #> 4 4 -0.840 -1.06 -0.513 -0.612 -0.603 #> 5 5 -1.14 0.512 -2.65 0.631 0.135 #> 6 6 0.349 -0.175 0.144 -0.454 -0.273 #> 7 7 -0.246 -1.42 -1.83 0.320 -0.663 #> 8 8 1.83 -0.208 -0.0477 0.408 -0.223 #> 9 9 -0.543 2.47 -0.185 1.67 3.88 #> 10 10 1.24 0.119 1.95 0.333 0.984 #> # ... with 690 more rows, and 4 more variables: weight_class <fct>, #> # pedigree <dbl>, age <dbl>, diabetes <fct>